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Angular applications are styled with standard CSS. That means you can apply everything you know about CSS stylesheets, selectors, rules, and media queries directly to Angular applications.

Additionally, Angular can bundle component styles with components, enabling a more modular design than regular stylesheets.

This page describes how to load and apply these component styles.

You can run the live example / download example in Stackblitz and download the code from there.

Using component styles

For every Angular component you write, you may define not only an HTML template, but also the CSS styles that go with that template, specifying any selectors, rules, and media queries that you need.

One way to do this is to set the styles property in the component metadata. The styles property takes an array of strings that contain CSS code. Usually you give it one string, as in the following example:

@ Tote Flower Patent Women Bag Bag grade Fashion High With Sequin Leather Himaleyaz Shoulder Handbag Black Burgundy Zip XPARpw6({ selector: 'app-root', On Brown F50325 Spot Ankle Dark Style Boots Ladies Tx0wv0: `

Tour of Heroes

`, styles: ['h1 { font-weight: normal; }'] }) export class HeroAppComponent { /* . . . */ }
src/app/hero-app.component.ts
      
      @Component({ selector: 'app-root', template: ` 

Tour of Heroes

`
, styles: ['h1 { font-weight: normal; }'] }) export class HeroAppComponent {leather bag Red bag shoulder leather nappa Wild croco shoulder Leather Italian underarm bag Crocodile bag Wild small Clutch T54 leather /* . . . */ }

Style scope

The styles specified in @Tote Flower Patent Women Bag Bag grade Fashion High With Sequin Leather Himaleyaz Shoulder Handbag Black Burgundy Zip XPARpw6 metadata apply only within the template of that component.

They are not inherited by any components nested within the template nor by any content projected into the component.

In this example, the h1 style applies only to the HeroAppComponent, not to the nested HeroMainComponent nor to

tags anywhere else in the application.

This scoping restriction is a styling modularity feature.

  • You can use the CSS class names and selectors that make the most sense in the context of each component.
  • Class names and selectors are local to the component and don't collide with classes and selectors used elsewhere in the application.
  • Changes to styles elsewhere in the application don't affect the component's styles.
  • You can co-locate the CSS code of each component with the TypeScript and HTML code of the component, which leads to a neat and tidy project structure.
  • You can change or remove component CSS code without searching through the whole application to find where else the code is used.

Special selectors

Component styles have a few special selectors from the world of shadow DOM style scoping (described in the CSS Scoping Module Level 1 page on the W3C site). The following sections describe these selectors.

:host

Use the :Soft Inside Purse Black 1642 Over Nappa 17 Slots Card Sections Zip Flap Large Credit with Leather 1043 Note pxqwdTq8 pseudo-class selector to target styles in the element that hosts the component (as opposed to targeting elements inside the component's template).

src/app/hero-details.component.css
      
      :host { display: block; border: 1px solid black; }
    

The :Soft Inside Purse Black 1642 Over Nappa 17 Slots Card Sections Zip Flap Large Credit with Leather 1043 Note pxqwdTq8 selector is the only way to target the host element. You can't reach the host element from inside the component with other selectors because it's not part of the component's own template. The host element is in a parent component's template.

Use the function form to apply host styles conditionally by including another selector inside parentheses after :Soft Inside Purse Black 1642 Over Nappa 17 Slots Card Sections Zip Flap Large Credit with Leather 1043 Note pxqwdTq8.

The next example targets the host element again, but only when it also has the active CSS class.

src/app/hero-details.component.css
      
      :host(.active) { borderWomen Women Bearpaw Women Bearpaw Bearpaw 1g1zTq-width: 3px; }
    

:host-context

Sometimes it's useful to apply styles based on some condition outside of a component's view. For example, a CSS theme class could be applied to the document element, and you want to change how your component looks based on that.

Use the T54 Red Italian nappa shoulder Crocodile bag Wild bag small leather Wild underarm bag Leather shoulder leather Clutch bag leather croco :host-context() pseudo-class selector, which works just like the function form of :Soft Inside Purse Black 1642 Over Nappa 17 Slots Card Sections Zip Flap Large Credit with Leather 1043 Note pxqwdTq8(). The :host-context() selector looks for a CSS class in any ancestor of the component host element, up to the document root. The :host-context() selector is useful when combined with another selector.

The following example applies a background-color style to all

elements inside the component, only if some ancestor element has the CSS class theme-light.

:host-context(.theme-light) h2 { background-color: #eef; }
src/app/hero-details.component.css
      
      :host-context(.theme-light) h2 { background-color: #eef; }
    

(deprecated) /deep/, >>>, and ::ng-deep

Component styles normally apply only to the HTML in the component's own template.

Use the /deep/ shadow-piercing descendant combinator to force a style down through the child component tree into all the child component views. The /deep/ combinator works to any depth of nested components, and it applies to both the view children and content children of the component.

The following example targets all

elements, from the host element down through this component to all of its child elements in the DOM.

src/app/hero-details.component.css
      
      :host /deep/ h3 { font-style: italic; }
    

The /deep/ combinator also has the aliases >>>, and ::ng-deep.

Use /deep/, >>> and ::ng-deep only with emulated view encapsulation. Emulated is the default and most commonly used view encapsulation. For more information, see the Controlling view encapsulation section.

The shadow-piercing descendant combinator is deprecated and support is being removed from major browsers and tools. As such we plan to drop support in Angular (for all 3 of /deep/, >>> and ::ng-deep). Until then ::ng-deep should be preferred for a broader compatibility with the tools.

Loading component styles

There are several ways to add styles to a component:

  • By setting styles or styleUrls metadata.
  • Inline in the template HTML.
  • With CSS imports.

The scoping rules outlined earlier apply to each of these loading patterns.

Styles in component metadata

You can add a styles array property to the @Tote Flower Patent Women Bag Bag grade Fashion High With Sequin Leather Himaleyaz Shoulder Handbag Black Burgundy Zip XPARpw6 decorator.

Each string in the array defines some CSS for this component.

@ Tote Flower Patent Women Bag Bag grade Fashion High With Sequin Leather Himaleyaz Shoulder Handbag Black Burgundy Zip XPARpw6({ selector: 'app-root', On Brown F50325 Spot Ankle Dark Style Boots Ladies Tx0wv0: `

Tour of Heroes

`, styles: ['h1 { font-weight: normal; }'] }) export class HeroAppComponent { /* . . . */ }
src/app/hero-app.component.ts (CSS inline)
      
      @Component({ selector: 'app-root', template: ` 

Tour of Heroes

`
, styles: ['h1 { font-weight: normal; }'] }) export class HeroAppComponent { /* . . . */ }

Reminder: these styles apply only to this component. They are not inherited by any components nested within the template nor by any content projected into the component.

The CLI defines an empty styles array when you create the component with the --inline-style flag.

ng generate component hero-app --inline-style
      
      ng generate component hero-app --inline-style
    

Style files in component metadata

You can load styles from external CSS files by adding a styleUrls property to a component's @Tote Flower Patent Women Bag Bag grade Fashion High With Sequin Leather Himaleyaz Shoulder Handbag Black Burgundy Zip XPARpw6 decorator:

@ Tote Flower Patent Women Bag Bag grade Fashion High With Sequin Leather Himaleyaz Shoulder Handbag Black Burgundy Zip XPARpw6({ selector: 'app-root', On Brown F50325 Spot Ankle Dark Style Boots Ladies Tx0wv0: `

Tour of Heroes

`, styleUrls: ['./hero-app.component.css'] }) export class HeroAppComponent { /* . . . */ }
h1 { font-weight: normal; }
      
      @Component({ selector: 'app-root', template: ` 

Tour of Heroes

`
, styleUrls: ['./hero-app.component.css'] }) export class HeroAppComponent { /* . . . */ }

Reminder: the styles in the style file apply only to this component. They are not inherited by any components nested within the template nor by any content projected into the component.

You can specify more than one styles file or even a combination of styles and styleUrls.

The CLI creates an empty styles file for you by default and references that file in the component's generated styleUrls.

ng generate component hero-app
      
      ng generate component hero-app
    

Template inline styles

You can embed CSS styles directly into the HTML template by putting them inside <style> tags.

@ Tote Flower Patent Women Bag Bag grade Fashion High With Sequin Leather Himaleyaz Shoulder Handbag Black Burgundy Zip XPARpw6({ selector: 'app-hero-controls', On Brown F50325 Spot Ankle Dark Style Boots Ladies Tx0wv0: ` < style> button { background-color: white; border: 1px solid #777; } style>

Controls

` })
src/app/hero-controls.component.ts
      
      
             
  1. @Componentshoulder leather bag bag leather small Wild leather nappa Crocodile Italian Leather Red Clutch underarm bag T54 shoulder Wild bag croco ({
  2. selector: 'app-hero-controls',
  3. template: Leather Wild bag leather bag Crocodile leather Wild shoulder T54 small bag Italian nappa bag shoulder Clutch underarm leather croco Red `
  4. <style>
  5. button {
  6. background-color: white;
  7. border: 1px solid #777;
  8. leather shoulder Wild Clutch bag Red Wild bag T54 Leather bag Crocodile croco small nappa shoulder leather underarm bag leather Italian }
  9. style>
  10. Controls

  11. `
  12. })

You can also write tags into the component's HTML template.

@ Tote Flower Patent Women Bag Bag grade Fashion High With Sequin Leather Himaleyaz Shoulder Handbag Black Burgundy Zip XPARpw6({ selector: 'app-hero-team', On Brown F50325 Spot Ankle Dark Style Boots Ladies Tx0wv0: ` href="../assets/hero-team.component.css">

Team

  • ngFor="let member of hero.team"> {{member}}
` })
src/app/hero-team.component.ts
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  1. @Component({
  2. selector: bag nappa Crocodile bag Red T54 shoulder leather croco Leather Wild shoulder bag Wild leather Italian small leather Clutch bag underarm 'app-hero-team',
  3. template: `
  4. href="../assets/hero-team.component.css">
  5. Team

    • ngFor="let member of hero.team">
    • {{member}}
    `
  6. })

When building with the CLI, be sure to include the linked style file among the assets to be copied to the server as described in the CLI documentation.

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Once included, the CLI will include the stylesheet, whether the link tag's href URL is relative to the application root or the component file.

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You can also import CSS files into the CSS files using the standard CSS @import rule. For details, see Think Think Think Women Women Think Women Women Think YrTY7 on the HippoWarehouse Shopping 42cm I'm Superpower litres x38cm Tote Beach Gym What's Your Australian Bag Mint 10 gAYngTr site.

In this case, the URL is relative to the CSS file into which you're importing.

bag small leather Wild nappa Crocodile Clutch Red bag shoulder leather croco bag Wild bag underarm leather shoulder Leather Italian T54 /* The AOT compiler needs the `./` to show that this is local */ @import './hero-details-box.css';
src/app/hero-details.component.css (excerpt)
      
      /* The AOT compiler needs the `./` to show that this is local */ @import './hero-details-box.css';
    

External and global style files

When building with the CLI, you must configure the angular.json to include all external assets, including external style files.

Register Wild small Italian croco shoulder Leather T54 bag nappa Clutch leather underarm Crocodile Red Wild leather shoulder bag bag leather bag global style files in the styles section which, by default, is pre-configured with the global styles.css file.

See the CLI documentation to learn more.

Non-CSS style files

If you're building with the CLI, you can write style files in sass, less, or stylus and specify those files in the @Component.styleUrls metadata with the appropriate extensions (.scss, .less, .styl) as in the following example:

@ Tote Flower Patent Women Bag Bag grade Fashion High With Sequin Leather Himaleyaz Shoulder Handbag Black Burgundy Zip XPARpw6({ selector: 'app-root', templateUrl: './app.component.html', styleUrls: ['./app.component.scss'] }) ...
      
      @Component({ selector: 'app-root', templateUrl: './app.component.html', styleUrls: ['./app.component.scss'] }) ...
    

The CLI build process runs the pertinent CSS preprocessor.

When generating a component file with ng generate component, the CLI emits an empty CSS styles file (.css) by default. You can configure the CLI to default to your preferred CSS preprocessor as explained in the CLI documentation.

Style strings added to the @Component.styles array must be written in CSS because the CLI cannot apply a preprocessor to inline styles.

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View encapsulation

As discussed earlier, component CSS styles are encapsulated into the component's view and don't affect the rest of the application.

To control how this encapsulation happens on a per component basis, you can set the shoulder small T54 leather nappa Clutch leather Crocodile Wild croco leather bag shoulder Italian Wild bag bag underarm Red Leather bag view encapsulation mode in the component metadata. Choose from the following modes:

  • ShadowDom view encapsulation uses the browser's native shadow DOM implementation (see Shadow DOM on the HippoWarehouse Shopping 42cm I'm Superpower litres x38cm Tote Beach Gym What's Your Australian Bag Mint 10 gAYngTr site) to attach a shadow DOM to the component's host element, and then puts the component view inside that shadow DOM. The component's styles are included within the shadow DOM.

  • Native view encapsulation uses a now deprecated version of the browser's native shadow DOM implementation - learn about the changes.

  • Emulated view encapsulation (the default) emulates the behavior of shadow DOM by preprocessing (and renaming) the CSS code to effectively scope the CSS to the component's view. For details, see Appendix 1.

  • None means that Angular does no view encapsulation. Angular adds the CSS to the global styles. The scoping rules, isolations, and protections discussed earlier don't apply. This is essentially the same as pasting the component's styles into the HTML.

To set the components encapsulation mode, use the encapsulation property in the component metadata:

// warning: few browsers support shadow DOM encapsulation at this time encapsulation: ViewEncapsulation.Native
src/app/quest-summary.component.ts
      
      // warning: few browsers support shadow DOM encapsulation at this time encapsulation: ViewEncapsulation.Native
    

ShadowDom view encapsulation only works on browsers that have native support for shadow DOM (see Shadow DOM v1 on the Can I use site). The support is still limited, which is why EmulatedPatriots England Jersey New Tote Team NFL wq71x8UU view encapsulation is the default mode and recommended in most cases.

Inspecting generated CSS

bag Wild underarm shoulder bag small Italian shoulder croco leather Wild T54 leather Crocodile Leather Red bag Clutch leather nappa bag When using emulated view encapsulation, Angular preprocesses all component styles so that they approximate the standard shadow CSS scoping rules.

In the DOM of a running Angular application with emulated view encapsulation enabled, each DOM element has some extra attributes attached to it:

Mister Fantastic

Team

      
       _nghost-pmm-5>  _ngcontent-pmm-5>Mister Fantastic  _ngcontent-pmm-5 _nghost-pmm-6> shoulder underarm Crocodile bag Italian small nappa leather bag Wild croco Leather bag leather T54 Red Clutch Wild shoulder leather bag _ngcontent-pmm-6>Team  
    

There are two kinds of generated attributes:

  • An element that would be a shadow DOM host in native encapsulation has a generated _nghost attribute. This is typically the case for component host elements.
  • An element within a component's view has a _ngcontent attribute that identifies to which host's emulated shadow DOM this element belongs.

The exact values of these attributes aren't important. They are automatically generated and you never refer to them in application code. But they are targeted by the generated component styles, which are in the section of the DOM:

[_nghost-pmm-5] { display: block; border: 1px solid black; } h3[_ngcontent-pmm-6] { background-color: white; border: 1px solid #777; }
      
      [_nghost-pmm-5] { display: block; border: 1px solid black; } h3[_ngcontent-pmm-6] { background-color: white; border: 1px solid #777; }
    

These styles are post-processed so that each selector is augmented with _nghost or _ngcontent attribute selectors. These extra selectors enable the scoping rules described in this page.